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  • Teaching English: Articles

    EFL teaching terminology

    By International Teacher Training Organization

    The following are terms used in the world of TEFL. Due to time constraint not all the items listed below are contained nor learned during our four-week TEFL courses. However what follows may prove to be a practical reference; this EFL teaching terminology list is not intended to be comprehensive, but introductory. You may wish to print the complete document by clicking on the print icon on your browser.

    AAIEP: American Association of Intensive English programs is a group of university and college-based intensive English programs.

    Academic language: language used in the learning of academic subject matter in formal schooling context; aspects of language strongly associated with literacy and academic achievement, including specific academic terms or technical language, and speech registers related to each field of study.

    Accent: This can mean word stress - control has the accent on the second syllable but we use it to mean the pronunciation used by some speakers - a regional or class accent.

    Acculturation: The process of adapting to a new culture. This involves understanding different systems of thought, beliefs, emotions, and communication systems. Acculturation is an important concept for understanding S.L.A., since successful learning is more likely when learners succeed in acculturating.

    Accuracy order: Learners learn and produce the L2 with varying degrees of accuracy at different stages of development, perhaps corresponding to the acquisition order.

    ACE: Access Certificate in Education. An entry-level training certificate being piloted by Pitmans/City and Guilds in the UK.

    ACELS: Advisory Council for English Language Schools in Ireland.

    Acquisition: A term used to describe language being absorbed without conscious effort; i.e. the way children pick up their mother tongue. Language acquisition is often contrasted with language learning. The internalization of rules and formulas which are then used to communicate in the L2. For some researchers, such as Krashen, 'acquisition' is unconscious and spontaneous, and 'learning' is conscious, developing through formal study.

    Active Vocabulary: The words and phrases which a learner is able to use in speech and writing. Contrasted with Passive Vocabulary.

    Advanced: A level of attainment where the learner has mastered most of the structures and functions of the language and is able to move freely through several registers - there may be a working vocabulary of in excess of 3000 words.

    Aids to Teaching: (a) Visual: Blackboard, whiteboard, overhead projector, realia, posters, wall charts, flipcharts, maps, plans, flashcards, word cards, puppets. (b) Electronic: Tape recorder, TV or video player, computer, CD Rom, language laboratory.

    Applied Linguistics: The study of the relationship between theory and practice. The main emphasis is usually on language teaching, but can also be applied to translation, lexicology, among others.

    Aptitude: The specific ability a learner has for learning a second language. This is separate from intelligence.

    ARELS: Association of Recognized English Language Schools in the UK.

    Assessment and Qualifications Alliance (AQA) (formerly AEB & NEAB): Certificate in English Language Skills (ESOL), JET SET, range of graded exams for ESOL.

    Asynchronous (adj.): Not happening in real time. Asynchronous communication is not immediate, such as communication by email.

    Assessment standards: Statements that establish guidelines for evaluating student performance and attainment of content standards; often include philosophical statements of good assessment practice (see performance standards).

    Attitudes: Learners possess sets of beliefs about language learning, target culture, culture, teacher, learning tasks, etc. These beliefs are referred to as attitudes. They influence learning in a number of ways.

    Audacity: Audio blogging software.

    Audio-Lingual Method: Listen and speak: this method considers listening and speaking the first tasks in language learning, followed by reading and writing. There is considerable emphasis on learning sentence patterns, memorization of dialogues and extensive use of drills.

    Audioblog: Audio blogging software.

    Authoring Tool: A program that allows the user to produce multimedia content in the form of web pages.

    Authentic Language: Real or natural language, as used by native speakers of a language in real-life contexts; not artificial or contrived for purposes of learning grammatical forms or vocabulary.

    Authentic Materials: Unscripted materials or those which have not been specially written for classroom use, though they may have been edited. Examples include newspaper texts and TV broadcasts.

    Authentic Task: A task which involves learners in using language in a way that replicates its use in the 'real world' outside the language classroom. Filling in blanks, changing verbs from the simple past to the simple present and completing substitution tables are, therefore, not authentic tasks. Examples of authentic tasks would be answering a letter addressed to the learner, arguing a particular point of view and comparing various holiday brochures in order to decide where to go for a holiday: See pedagogic task.

    Authentic Text: A text which is not written or spoken for language teaching purposes. A newspaper article, a rock song, a novel, a radio interview and a traditional fairy tale are examples of authentic texts. A story written to exemplify the use of reported speech, a dialogue scripted to exemplify ways of inviting and a linguistically simplified version of a novel would not be authentic texts: See simplified texts; text.

    Auxiliary Verbs: Forms of the verbs be, do and have which are used to create the different tenses in English: am/is/are/was/were eating/ being eaten; do/does/did eat; has/have/had eaten/ been eaten.

    BASELT: British Association of State English Language Teaching schools in the UK.

    BC: British Council.

    Behaviorist Learning theory: This a general theory of learning, developed by B F Skinner. It sees learning as the formation of habits. Environmental factors (input, teacher, classroom, etc.) are seen as more important than the student's mental, internal factors.

    Biculturalism: Near native like knowledge of two cultures; includes the ability to respond effectively to the different demands of these two cultures.

    Bilingual instruction: Provision of instruction in school settings through the medium of two languages, a native and a second language; the proportion of the instructional day delivered in each language varies by the type of the bilingual education program in which instruction is offered and the goals of said program.

    Bilingualism: Being able to communicate effectively in two or more languages, with more or less the same degree of proficiency.

    Blended Learning: Learning which involves a combination of e-learning and face-to-face learning.

    Blogroll: A list of links to blogs.

    Body language: The gestures and mannerisms by which a person communicates with others.

    CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning): An approach to language teaching and learning which uses computer technology.

    Cambridge: See University of Cambridge.

    CAT: Computer Adaptive Testing.

    CBT: Computer Based Testing.

    CELTA: Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults. This is a trade name TEFL certificate course developed in the UK by University of Cambridge ESOL (UCLES) and RSA. DELTA is the advanced Diploma course.

    CELTYL: Certificate in English Language Teaching to Young Learners. A certificate course developed in the UK by University of Cambridge ESOL (UCLES); normally taken as an add-on option with CELTA.

    Cert. TEB: Certificate in Teaching English for Business. A certificate course developed by LCCI for teachers specializing in business English (see LCCI, below).

    Cert. TESOL: Certificate in TESOL. The certificate course developed in the UK by Trinity College London. The advanced version for experienced teachers is the Lic.Dip.TESOL.

    Cert. TEYL: Certificate in Teaching English to Young Learners. A certificate course extension developed by Trinity College London; normally taken as an add-on option with Cert. TESOL.

    Chauncey Group: Part of ETS, US-based group that administers the TOEIC student examination.

    Chat: Real-time communication over the Internet.

    Chatware: Software for voice and/or text chat. Chat programs you may come across are: Qnext, .NET Messenger Service, Jabber, QQ, iChat and ICQ.

    Class Blog: A blog in which a group of students participate.

    Cloze Procedure: An exercise where every fifth word (or sixth or seventh etc) is deleted from a text. The interval between the deleted words should remain the same throughout the text. The student then supplies the missing words, often relying on contextualization for help.

    Cognate: Cognates are words from different languages which are related historically; for example, English bath - German bad or English yoke - Hindi yoga. Beware of False Friends however.

    Collocation: The tendency for words to occur regularly with others: sit/chair, house/garage.

    Common Core: The central part of the course or syllabus; or the elements of a language vital to any teaching program.

    Communication Strategies: Strategies for using L2 knowledge. These are used when learners do not have the correct language for the concept they wish to express. Thus they use strategies such as paraphrase and mime: See learner strategies and production strategies.

    Communicative Approaches: Approaches to language teaching which aim to help learners to develop communicative competence (i.e., the ability to use the language effectively for communication). A weak communicative approach includes overt teaching of language forms and functions in order to help learners to develop the ability to use them for communication. A strong communicative approach relies on providing learners with experience of using language as the main means of learning to use the language. In such as approach, learners, for example, talk to learn rather than learn to talk.

    Communicative Competence: The ability to use the language effectively for communication. Gaining such competence involves acquiring both sociolinguistic and linguistic knowledge (or, in other words, developing the ability to use the language accurately, appropriately, and effectively).

    Communicative Functions: Purposes for which language is used; includes three broad functions: communicative, integrative, and expressive; where language aids the transmission of information, aids affiliation and belonging to a particular social group, and allows the display of individual feelings, ideas, and personality.

    Communicative Language Teaching: An approach concerned with the needs of students to communicate outside the classroom; teaching techniques reflect this in the choice of language content and materials, with emphasis on role play, pair and group work, among others.

    Comprehensible Input: When native speakers and teachers speak to L2 learners, they often adjust their speech to make it more comprehensible. Such comprehensible input may be a necessary condition for acquisition to occur.

    Comprehensible Output: The language produced by the learner (the 'output') may be comprehensible or incomprehensible. The efforts learners make to be comprehensible may play a part in acquisition.

    Concordances (or concordance lines): A list of authentic utterances each containing the same focused word or phrase e.g.: “The bus driver still didn't have any change so he made me wait. I really don't mind which one. Any newspaper will do. I just ...know what they are saying. Any teacher will tell you that it's ………”: See authentic.

    Concordancer: A computer program that counts and lists the occurrences of a given term, showing examples of its use from a corpus (or body) of text. CORPUS and WORDSMITH TOOLS

    Content Words: Words with a full meaning of their own; nouns, main verbs (ie not auxiliary or modal verbs), adjectives and many adverbs. Contrasted with structure words.

    Content-based E.S.L.: A model of language education that integrates language and content instruction in the second language classroom; a second language learning approach where second language teachers use instructional materials, learning tasks, and classroom techniques from academic content areas as the vehicle for developing second language, content, cognitive and study skills.

    Corpus (s.); Corpuses, Corpora (pl.): A corpus is an amount of collected texts, held in a computer, which can be accessed and analyzed by means of a concordancer. Corpuses can be based on spoken text, or on written text. Well-known corpuses are the British National Corpus, and the COBUILD Bank of English corpus. CONCORDANCER and WORDSMITH TOOLs

    Context: The 'context' of an utterance can mean: i) 'situational context' - the situation in which the utterance is produced; ii) 'linguistic context' - the linguistic environment (the surrounding language).

    Contextualization: Placing the target language in a realistic setting, so as to be meaningful to the student.

    Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis: According to this hypothesis, L2 errors are the result of differences between the learner's first language and the target language, and these differences can be used to identify or predict errors that will occur.

    Content Management System (CMS): A web-based software system allowing for the management of large quantities of content (documents, multimedia, etc) and the collaborative creation of documents.

    Cooperative/Collaborative Group: A grouping arrangement in which positive interdependence and shared responsibility for task completion are established among group members; the type of organizational structure encouraging heterogeneous grouping, shared leadership, and social skills development.

    COTE: Certificate for Overseas Teachers of English. A certificate-level course developed by University of Cambridge ESOL (UCLES).

    Course book: A textbook which provides the core materials for a course. It aims to provide as much as possible in one book and is designed so that it could serve as the only book which the learners necessarily use during a course. Such a book usually focuses on grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, functions and the skills of reading, writing, listening and speaking: See supplementary materials.

    Coursecasting: A situation where a teacher delivers course content to students as downloads.

    CRELS: Combined Registered English Language Schools of New Zealand Cross-Cultural.

    Competence: Ability to function according to the cultural rules of more than one cultural system; ability to respond in culturally sensitive and appropriate ways according to the cultural demands of a given situation.

    Cue Cards: Cards with words or pictures on them which are used to encourage student response, or pair and group work.

    Culture: The sum total of the ways of life of a people; includes norms, learned behavior patterns, attitudes, and artifacts; also involves traditions, habits or customs; how people behave, feel and interact; the means by which they order and interpret the world; ways of perceiving, relating and interpreting events based on established social norms; a system of standards for perceiving, believing, evaluating, and acting.

    DELTA: Diploma in English Language Teaching to Adults. The advanced (post-experience) qualification from University of Cambridge ESOL (UCLES).

    Dialect: The regional variety of a language, differing from the standard language, in grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation or idiomatic usage.

    Direct Method: The most common approach in TEFL, where language is taught through listening and speaking. There may be little or no explicit explanation dealing with syntax or grammatical rules, nor translation into the mother tongue of the student - inductive learning rather than deductive.

    Digital Divide: The gap between those with access to technology and those without.

    Discussion Group: An electronic list in which list members correspond by email to discuss issues of interest to the group. A discussion group will typically not only receive and send emails, but will also have access to a group website where they can save and share files, use chat, and read other members' profiles.

    Discourse: Unit of language greater than a sentence: language in action or performance communicatively.

    Discussion List: A mailing list that enables and encourages discussion.

    DOS: Director of Studies Drilling: The intensive and repetitive practice of the target language, which may be choral or individual.

    Edublog: A blog with an educational purpose.

    E-learning: An abbreviation for electronic C learning and refers to learning which involves the use of electronic media, such as the Internet, CD-ROMs, DVDs, or mobile devices such as MP3 players and PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants). e-learning can be face-to face or distance.

    E-Portfolio: A digital collection of an individual student's work and achievements.

    E.F.L.: English as a foreign language.

    E.S.L.: L2: English as a Second Language. The field of English as a second language; courses, classes and/or programs designed for students learning English as an additional language.

    E.S.O.L.: student: English to speakers of other languages; refers to learners who are identified as still in the process of acquiring English as an additional language; students who may not speak English at all or, at least, do not speak, understand, and write English with the same facility as their classmates because they did not grow up speaking English (rather they primarily spoke another language at home).

    E.S.O.L.: English to / for Speakers of Other Languages.

    E.S.P.: English for Specific Purposes; e.g., for business, science and technology, medicine among others.

    EAP: English for Academic Purposes – The study or teaching of English with specific reference to an academic (usually a university- or college-based) course.

    ECIS: European Council of International Schools.

    EFL: English as a Foreign Language – English language programsin countries where English is not the common or official language. It is used in American university programs where international students study English although the use of the word “foreign” is now avoided in some schools because of its xenophobic connotations.

    Elementary: Students at this level may have a vocabulary of up to 1000 words and will probably be learning or practicing present simple and continuous tenses, past simple and present perfect, will/shall, 'going to' futures. They should be able to hold simple conversations and survive in everyday situations.

    ELICOS: English Language Intensive Courses for Overseas Students. The Australian term for EFL.

    ELL: English Language Learner–a term that has become popular in California designed to replace the acronym “LEP” (see below) which many teachers felt to be pejorative.

    ELT: English Language Teaching or Training–A term coined in the UK and designed to replace EFL. It is in use around the world but has yet to catch on in the USA.

    ELTAs: English Language Teacher Associations groups for teachers in Germany and Austria.

    EOP: English for Occupational Purposes.

    Error Analysis: In this procedure, samples of learner language are collected and the errors are identified, described, and classified according to their hypothesized causes. The errors are then evaluated for relative seriousness.

    ESB: English Speaking Board International. Oral assessments in (spoken) English

    ESL: English as a Second Language – English language programs in countries where English is the dominant or official language. programs designed for non-English-speaking immigrants in the USA are ESL programs.

    ESOL: English to Speakers of Other Languages–a term often used to describe elementary and secondary English language programs. It is sometimes used to distinguish ESL classes within adult basic education programs.

    ESP: English for Specific Purposes–a term that refers to teaching or studying English for a particular career (like law or medicine) or for business in general.

    ETS: (Educational Testing Service) Based in Princeton, NJ, the world’s biggest examination board, administrators of the TOEFL student examination.

    Experiential: Referring to ways of learning language through experiencing in use rather than through focusing conscious attention on language items. Reading a novel, listening to a song and taking part in a project are experiential ways of learning a language.

    Extensive Reading: Reading for general or global understanding, often of longer texts.

    False Friends: Cognate words, or words accidentally similar in form, whose meaning is rather different in the two languages, e.g., English gentle - French gentil.

    Feedback: The response learners get when they attempt to communicate. This can involve correction, acknowledgement, requests for clarification, backchannel cues (e.g., "mmm"). Feedback plays an important role in helping learners to test their ideas about the target language.

    Filter: Learners do not attend to all the input they receive. They attend to some features, and 'filter' other features out. This often depends on affective factors such as motivation, attitudes, emotions, and anxiety.

    First Certificate: Cambridge First Certificate: an examination which may be taken by students of a good intermediate level.

    Foreign language: A language which is not normally used for communication in a particular society. Thus English is a foreign language in France and Spanish is a foreign language in Germany.

    Formal instruction: This occurs in classrooms when teachers try to aid learning by raising the learners' consciousness about the target language rules. Formal instruction can be deductive (the learners are told the rules) or inductive (learners develop a knowledge of the rules through carrying out language tasks).

    Frequency: The input language contains a range of linguistic forms which occur with varying frequency. The learner's output also contains a range of linguistic forms used with varying frequency. There is evidence to show that input frequency matches output frequency. Function Words: See Structure Words.

    Freevlog: Video blogging software.

    Functions: the things people do through language, for example, instructing, apologizing, complaining. Functional Approach: A course based on a functional approach would take as its starting point for language development, what the learner wants to do through language. Common functions include identifying oneself and giving personal facts about oneself; expressing moods and emotions.

    Genre: A category of literary composition characterized by a particular style, form, or content (e.g., an historical novel is one fictional genre).

    Global course book: A course book which is not written for learners from a particular culture or country but which is intended for use by any class of learners in the specified level anywhere in the world.

    Grading: The order in which language items are taught. Systematic grading may reduce the difficulties of language learning by introducing the language in steps or stages.

    Grammar-Translation: A method based upon memorizing the rules and logic of a language and the practice of translation. Traditionally the means by which Latin and Greek have been taught.

    Grapheme: The written symbols for sounds in language; i.e., letters of the alphabet or a character in picture writing (as in Japanese kange).

    Home language: Language(s) spoken in the home by significant others (e.g., family members, caregivers) who reside in the child's home; sometimes used as a synonym for first language, primary language, or native language.

    Hypothesis formation: According to this concept, the learner forms hypotheses about the target-language rules, and then tests them out. These are internalized rules, which are used in L2 communication.

    Interactive Whiteboard (IWB): An electronically enhanced whiteboard, used in face-to-face teaching, which allows content from a computer screen to be projected onto the whiteboard. Images and text can be manipulated by using a special electronic pen.

    IATEFL: International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language is based in the UK with members around the world.

    Idiolect: The individual’s language in a given tongue or code (e.g., ‘English’ for a given American user; ‘Spanish’ for a Mexican one).

    Idiom: An expression in the usage of a language that has a meaning that cannot be derived from the conjoined meanings of its elements (e.g., raining cats and dogs).

    IEP: Intensive English Program–refers to an intensive course designed to help non-English speaking students prepare for academic study at a university or college.

    Immersion Method: This simulates the way in which children acquire their mother tongue. The learner is surrounded by the foreign language, with no deliberate or organized teaching programme. The learner absorbs the target language naturally without conscious effort.

    Inductive Learning: Learning to apply the rules of a language by experiencing the language in use, rather than by having the rules explained or by consciously deducing the rules.

    Inferencing: This is the means by which the learner forms hypotheses, through attending to input, or using the situational context to interpret the input.

    Inflection: The change in form of a word, which indicates a grammatical change. For example: behave - behaved - behaviour - misbehave.

    Input: This constitutes the language to which the learner is exposed. It can be spoken or written. It serves as the data which the learner must use to determine the rules of the target language.

    Intensive Reading: Reading for specific understanding of information, usually of shorter texts.

    Interactional tasks: Tasks which promote communication and interaction. The idea behind this approach is that the primary purpose of speech is the maintenance of social relationships: See transactional tasks.

    Interference: According to behaviorist learning theory, the patterns of the learner's mother tongue (L1) get in the way of learning the patterns of the L2. This is referred to as 'interference'.

    Interlanguage: The learner's knowledge of the L2 which is independent of both the L1 and the actual L2. This term can refer to: i) the series of interlocking systems which characterize acquisition; ii) the system that is observed at a single stage of development (an 'interlanguage'); and iii) particular L1/L2 combinations.

    Intermediate: At this level a student will have a working vocabulary of between 1500 and 2000 words and should be able to cope easily in most everyday situations. There should be an ability to express needs, thoughts and feelings in a reasonably clear

    IELTS: International English Language Testing System. Managed by UCLES, the British Council and IDP Australia for academic and vocational English.

    Intonation: The ways in which the voice pitch rises and falls in speech.

    JALT: Japanese Association for Language Teaching.

    JET: Japanese Exchange and Teaching Programme

    Keypal: The electronic equivalent of a pen pal. Keypals are friends who communicate using electronic media - they exchange emails instead of traditional paper-based letters.

    L.A.D.: Language Acquisition Device; a term coined by Noam Chomsky to explain an innate psychological capacity for language acquisition.

    L1: First language

    L1: The mother tongue.

    L2: A term used to refer to both foreign and second languages: See foreign language; second language.

    L2: Second language.

    Language "chunks": Short phrases learned as a unit (e.g., thank you very much); patterned language acquired through redundant use, such as refrains and repetitive phrases in stories.

    Language awareness: Approaches to teaching language which emphasise the value of helping learners to focus attention on features of language in use. Most such approaches emphasise the importance of learners gradually developing their own awareness of how the language is used through discoveries which they make themselves: See discovery activities.

    Language data: Instances of language use which are used to provide information about how the language is used. Thus a corpus can be said to consist of language data: See corpus.

    Language Laboratory: A room equipped with headphones and booths to enable students to listen to a language teaching programme, while being monitored from a central console. Labs may be Audio-Active (AA), where students listen and respond to a tape, or Audio-Active-Comparative (AAC), where they may record their own responses and compare these with a model on the master tape.

    Language practice: Activities which involve repetition of the same language point or skill in an environment which is controlled by the framework of the activity. The purpose for language production and the language to be produced are usually predetermined by the task of the teacher. The intention is not to use the language for communication but to strengthen, through successful repetition, the ability to manipulate a particular language form or function. Thus getting all the students in a class who already know each other repeatedly to ask each other their names would be a practice activity: See language use.

    Language proficiency: The level of competence at which an individual is able to use language for both basic communicative tasks and academic purposes.

    Language use: Activities which involve the production of language in order to communicate. The purpose of the activity might be predetermined but the language which is used is determined by the learners. Thus, getting a new class of learners to walk round and introduce themselves to each other would be a language use activity, and so would be getting them to complete a story.

    Language variety: Variations of a language used by particular groups of people, includes regional dialects characterized by distinct vocabularies, speech patterns, grammatical features, and so forth; may also vary by social group (sociolect) or idiosyncratically for a particular individual (idiolect).

    Learner Management System (LMS): A learning platform within which students can work together online.

    Learning strategies: These account for how learners accumulate new L2 rules and how they automate existing ones. They can be conscious or subconscious. These contrast with communication strategies and production strategies, which account for how the learners use their rule systems, rather than how they acquire them. Learning strategies may include metacognitive strategies (e.g., planning for learning, monitoring one's own comprehension and production, evaluating one's performance); cognitive strategies (e.g., mental or physical manipulation of the material), or social/affective strategies (e.g., interacting with another person to assist learning, using self-talk to persist at a difficult task until resolution).

    Learning styles: The way(s) that particular learners prefer to learn a language. Some have a preference for hearing the language (auditory learners), some for seeing it written down (visual learners), some for learning it in discrete bits (analytic learners), some for experiencing it in large chunks (global or holistic or experiential learners) and many prefer to do something physical whilst experiencing the language (kinaesthetic learners).

    Learning: The internalization of rules and formulas which can be used to communicate in the L2. Krashen uses this term for formal learning in the classroom.

    LEP: Limited English Proficient–a term used for many years to designate children in the schools systems for whom English was not their first language. Now replaced by terms like ELL.

    Lexical item: An item of vocabulary which has a single element of meaning. It may be a compound or phrase: bookcase, post office, put up with. Some single words may initiate several lexical items; eg letter: a letter of the alphabet / posting a letter.

    Lexical set: A group or family of words related to one another by some semantic principle: eg lamb, pork, chicken, beef are all different types of meat and form a lexical set.

    Linguistic Competence: A broad term used to describe the totality of a given individual's language ability; the underlying language system believed to exist as inferred from an individual's language performance.

    LCCIEB: London Chamber of Commerce and Industry. Range of business and specialist English examinations.

    London Examinations: Edexcel International London Tests of English range of exams graded from basic to proficient.

    LTCL.Dip.TESOL: Licentiate Diploma in TESOL. The advanced (post-experience) qualification from Trinity College London.

    Materials adaptation: Making changes to materials in order to improve them or to make them more suitable for a particular type of learner. Adaptation can include reducing, adding, omitting, modifying and supplementing. Most teachers adapt materials every time they use a textbook in order to maximise the value of the book for their particular learners.

    Materials evaluation: The systematic appraisal of the value of materials in relation to their objectives and to the objectives of the learners using them. Evaluation can be pre-use and therefore focused on predictions of potential value. It can be whilst-use and therefore focused on awareness and description of what the learners are actually doing whilst the materials are being used. And it can also be post-use and therefore focused on analysis of what happened as a result of using the materials.

    Materials: Anything which is used to help to teach language learners. Materials can be in the form of a textbook, a workbook, a cassette, a CD-Rom, a video, a photocopied handout, a newspaper, a paragraph written on a whiteboard: anything which presents of informs about the language being learned.

    Meaning-focused tasks: These tasks focus on communication of meaning. Meaning-focused tasks do not provide practice activities which focus on individual linguistic components as a preliminary to engagement in communicative tasks. According to the meaning-focused approach, involvement in communicative tasks is all that is necessary to develop competence in a second language: See form-focused tasks.

    Micro-teaching: A technique used on teacher training courses: a part of a lesson is taught to a small number of students. A variation of this is 'peer teaching', where the 'students' are often peers of the trainee teacher attending the same course.

    Microsoft NetMeeting: Video-conferencing software developed by Microsoft and included in many Microsoft Windows packages.

    Minimal Pair: A pair of items differing by one phonological feature; for example: sit/set, ship/sheep, pen/pan, fan/pan, pan/pat, among others.

    Mixed Technological Ability: A situation where a group of students have varying levels of computer skills.

    Modal Verb: Verbs which express the mood of another verb: will/would; shall/should; may/might; can/could; must, ought, need, dare, used to.

    Monitor: Language learners and native speakers typically try to correct any errors in what they have just said. This is referred to as 'monitoring'. The learner can monitor vocabulary, phonology, or discourse. Krashen uses 'Monitoring' to refer the way the learner uses 'learnt' knowledge to improve naturally 'acquired' knowledge.

    Morpheme: The smallest unit of language that is grammatically significant. Morphemes may be bound; that is, they cannot exist on their own. For example, er, un, ed, mis, among others. Or, they can be free, as is ball in football, a compound noun comprised of such word plus ‘foot’.

    Morphology: The branch of linguistics which studies how words change their forms when they change grammatical function, i.e., their inflections swim - swam - swum - swimming - swimmer; cat - cats; mouse - mice; happy - happier – happily, among others: See also Syntax.

    Motivation: This can be defined in terms of the learner's overall goal or orientation. 'Instrumental' motivation occurs when the learner's goal is functional (e.g. to get a job or pass an examination), and 'integrative' motivation occurs when the learner wishes to identify with the culture of the L2 group. 'Task" motivation is the interest felt by the learner in performing different learning tasks.

    Multilingualism: Ability to speak more than two languages; proficiency in many languages.

    Multi-media materials: Materials which make use of a number of different media. Often they are available on a CD-Rom which makes use of print, graphics, video and sound. Usually such materials are interactive and enable the learner to receive feedback on the written or spoken language which they produce.

    Multiple intelligences. (Also MI): A theory of intelligence that characterizes human intelligence as having multiple dimensions that must be acknowledged and developed in education. The theory of MI is based on the work of the psychologist Gardner who posits 8 intelligences.

    M-learning: Learning which involves the use of mobile electronic media, such as MP3 players, PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants) or mobile phones.

    MUVE: Multi-User Virtual Environment.

    NABE: National Association for Bilingual Education is an association that represents the interests of bilingual teachers in the USA.

    Native language: Primary or first language spoken by an individual: (See L1).

    Natural Approach: Pioneered by Krashen, this approach combines acquisition and learning as a means of facilitating language development in adults.

    NEAS: National ELT Accreditation Scheme, for course-providers in Australia.

    Neuro-linguistic Programming. (Also NLP): A training philosophy and set of training techniques first developed by John Grindler and Richard Bandler in the mid -1970s as an alternative form of therapy. Important within language teaching to teachers interested in humanistic approaches, i.e. those which focus on developing one’s sense of self-actualization and self-awareness.

    Nonverbal Communication: Paralinguistic and non linguistic messages that can be transmitted in conjunction with language or without the aid of language; paralinguistic mechanisms include intonation, stress, rate of speech, and pauses or hesitations; non linguistic behaviors include gestures, facial expressions, and body language, among others.

    Notions: General concepts expressed through language such as temporality, duration, and quantity. Over-generalization: Language learners often produce errors which are extensions of general rules to items not covered by the rules. For example, 'I comed home' *. This is called ‘over-generalization’.

    Pair Work: A process in which students work in pairs for practice or discussion. particular career (like law or medicine) or for business in general.

    Passive Vocabulary: The vocabulary that students are able to understand compared to that which they are able to use. Contrasted with Active Vocabulary.

    Patterns: These are a type of formulaic speech. They are unanalysed units which have open slots. For example: 'Can I have a .......?': See formulaic speech and routines.

    Pedagogic task: In pedagogic tasks, learners are required to do things which it is extremely unlikely they would be called upon to do outside of the classroom. Completing one half of a dialogue, filling in the blanks in a story and working out the meaning of ten nonsense words from clues in a text would be examples of pedagogic tasks: See real-world tasks.

    Peer Group: Usually refers to people working or studying at the same level or in the same grouping; one's colleagues or fellow students.

    Performance standards: Statements that refer to how well students are meeting a content standard; specify the quality and effect of student performance at various levels of competency (benchmarks) in the subject matter; specify how students must demonstrate their knowledge and skills and can show student progress toward meeting a standard.

    Phoneme: The smallest unit of sound which causes a change of meaning: cattle - kettle /kæte/.

    Pitman Qualifications: Range of general ESOL exams, including spoken English and business English.

    Process approach: The process approach focuses on the means whereby learning occurs. The process is more important than the product. In terms of writing, the important aspect is the way in which completed text was created. The act of composing evolves through several stages as writers discover, through the process, what it is that they are trying to say: See product approach.

    Product approach: The product approach focuses on the end result of teaching/learning. In terms of writing, there should be something "resulting" from the composition lesson (e.g. letter, essay, story, etc.). This result should be readable, grammatically correct and obeying discourse conventions relating to main points, supporting details and so on: See process approach.

    Production strategies: These refer to utilization of linguistic knowledge in communication. They do not imply any communication problem (cf., communication strategies) and they operate largely unconsciously: See communication strategies and learning strategies.

    Pbwiki: Software for the creation of wikis.

    Peer-to-Peer (P2P): A technology that allows for informal networks of computers to share resources. In P2P networking, downloads are split into much smaller chunks of data and sent via the network of connected computers, enabling quicker file transfers.

    Podcast: A method of publishing usually audio files on the Internet. A user can subscribe to these files (often at no cost), and download them to his/her computer and to a portable listening device such as an MP3 player.

    PodOmatic: Podcast creation software.

    RSS (Really Simple Syndication): Software which organizes online sources of information for the individual.

    Rate of acquisition: The speed at which the learner develops L2 proficiency. This is different to the 'route of acquisition'. Register: The kind of language used by particular groups for particular communicative situations, for example law register.

    RELSA: Recognized English Language Schools Association. The organisation of independent language schools in Ireland RSA Royal Society of Arts is a body that works with UCLES (see below).

    S.L.A.: This is an abbreviation for Second Language Acquisition and is normally used to refer to research and theory related to the learning of second and foreign languages.

    Schema theory: A theory of language processing based on the notion that past experiences lead to the creation of mental frameworks that help us make sense of new experiences.

    Second language: The term is used to refer to a language which is not a mother tongue but which is used for certain communicative functions in a society. Thus English is a second language in Nigeria, Sri Lanka and Singapore. French is a second language in Senegal, Cameroon and Tahiti: See foreign language.

    Self-access materials: Materials designed for learners to use independently (i.e., on their own without access to a teacher or a classroom). They are normally used by the learner at home, in a library or in a self-study center.

    Self-Access Centre (SAC): A classroom which can be used by learners to study alone. A SAC often has computers, and access to the Internet, as well as CD-ROMs, books, magazines, etc.

    Second Life: A new Internet environment which has a virtual reality.

    Simplified texts: These are texts which have been made simpler so as to make it easier for learners to read them. The usual principles of simplification involve reduction in length of the text, shortening of sentences, omission or replacement of difficult words or structures, omission of qualifying clauses and omission of non-essential detail. It is arguable, however, that such simplification might make the words easier to understand but could make it more difficult for the learners to achieve global understanding of a text which is now dense with important information. It might be more profitable to simplify texts by adding examples, by using repetition and paraphrase and by increasing redundant information. In other words, by lengthening rather than shortening the text.

    Skype: A software program which uses peer-to-peer data transfer techniques to facilitate free audio and video conversations over the Internet. This is often referred to as VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) technology.

    Supplementary materials: Materials designed to be used in addition to the core materials of a course. They are usually related to the development of skills of reading, writing, listening or speaking rather than to the learning of language items: See course book.

    Student Blog: A blog which an individual student sets up and maintains.

    Synchronous (adj.): Happening in real time. Synchronous communication is immediate, such as communication by instant messenger, or by telephone.

    Target language: This is the language that the learner is attempting to learn. It comprises the native speaker's grammar.

    Task based: This refers to materials or courses which are designed around a series of authentic tasks which give learners experience of using the language in ways in which it is used in the 'real world' outside the classroom. They have no pre-determined language syllabus and the aim is for learners to learn from the tasks the language they need to participate successfully in them. Examples of such tasks would be working out the itinerary of a journey from a timetable, completing a passport application form, ordering a product from a catalogue and giving directions to the post office: See authentic tasks.

    Teacher talk: Teachers make adjustments to both language form and language function in order to help communication in the classroom. These adjustments are called 'teacher talk'.

    TELL (Technology Enhanced Language Learning): Derived from the term CALL, this is an approach to language teaching and learning which uses a range of technology and electronic media.

    TEFL: Teaching English as a Foreign Language – a term that refers to teacher training programs in EFL.

    TESL: Teaching English as a Second Language, Canada - national federation of teachers and providers in Canada.

    TESL: Teaching English as a Second Language – a term that refers to teacher training programs in ESL.

    TESOL: Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages – a term that is used to distinguish English language teaching as a professional activity that requires specialized training. Also refers to the teacher examinations developed by Trinity College London (Cert.TESOL and LTCL.Dip.TESOL).

    TESOL: US-based international association of teachers of English as a second or foreign language. There are regional affiliates and many countries have their own affiliated associations.

    Text: Any scripted or recorded production of a language presented to learners of that language. A text can be written or spoken and could be, for example, a poem, a newspaper article, a passage about pollution, a song, a film, an extract from a novel or a play, a passage written to exemplify the use of the past perfect, a recorded telephone conversation, a scripted dialogue or a speech by a politician. Total Physical Response

    Tracking Facility: The ability to monitor student performance.

    Tutor Blog: A blog led by a teacher.

    Method: Developed by Asher, where items are presented in the foreign language as ‘orders’, ‘commands’ and “instructions” requiring a physical response from the learner (e.g., ‘opening a window’ or ‘standing up’ after being asked, linguistically, to carry out such command).

    Transactional tasks: These tasks are primarily concerned with the transfer of information: See interactional tasks.

    Transfer: Knowledge of the L1 is used to help in learning the L2. Transfer can be positive, when the two language have similar structures, or it can be negative, when the two languages are different, and L1-induced errors occur. Trinity College London Responsible for the Certificate in TESOL and the Licentiate Diploma in TESOL examinations.

    UCLES: University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate. Syndicate of local examination centres around the world that administer the University of Cambridge ESOL examinations.

    Universal grammar: A set of general principles that apply to all languages, rather than a set of particular rules.

    Universal hypothesis: This states that certain universal linguistic properties determine the order in which the rules of a specific language are acquired. Thus, linguistic rather than cognitive factors determine acquisition.

    University of Cambridge ESOL: Administered locally by UCLES. Is a British-based organization responsible for developing a number of important English language exams (including PET, FCE, CAE) and teacher training programs including the CELTA, CELTYL, and DELTA examinations.

    Variability: Language learners vary in the use they make of their linguistic knowledge. This can be systematic or unsystematic.

    Video Conferencing: A meeting between people who are not physically present, via computers connected to the Internet, using technologies such as video cameras and audio tools, simultaneously.

    Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs): A software system designed to help teachers manage online educational courses. VLEs generally include course content, communication tools, grading tools, student tracking, grouping facilities and control over who accesses the course. VLEs are also known as platforms Managed Learning Environments (MLEs), and Learner Management Systems (LMSs).

    Vlog: Short for video blog.

    Vodcast: A video podcast.

    Webquest: A project which requires learners to use Internet resources and websites to find information. A webquest has four main stages: Introduction, Task, Process and Evaluation.

    Workbook: A book which contains extra practice activities for learners to work on in their own time. Usually the book is designed so that learners can write in it and often there is an answer key provided in the back of the book to give feedback to the learners.

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